With PhenoGram researchers can create chomosomal ideograms annotated with lines in color at specific base-pair locations, or colored base-pair to base-pair regions, with or without other annotation. PhenoGram allows for annotation of chromosomal locations and/or regions with shapes in different colors, gene identifiers, or other text. PhenoGram also allows for creation of plots showing expanded chromosomal locations, providing a way to show results for specific chromosomal regions in greater detail. We have now used PhenoGram to produce a variety of different plots, and provide these as examples herein. These plots include visualization of the genomic coverage of SNPs from a genotyping array, highlighting the chromosomal coverage of imputed SNPs, copy-number variation region coverage, as well as plots similar to the NHGRI GWA Catalog of genome-wide association results.
PhenoGram is a versatile, user-friendly software tool fostering the exploration and sharing of genomic information. Through visualization of data, researchers can both explore and share complex results, facilitating a greater understanding of these data.
- Visualizing genomic information across chromosomes with PhenoGram. Daniel Wolfe, Scott Dudek, Marylyn D. Ritchie, Sarah A. Pendergrass, 6, 1, BioData mining, 2013, PMID: 24131735
Initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) discoveries are being further explored through the use of large cohorts across multiple and diverse populations involving meta-analyses within large consortia and networks. Many of the additional studies characterize less than 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), often include multiple and correlated phenotypic measurements, and can include data from multiple-sites, multiple-studies, as well as multiple race/ethnicities. New approaches for visualizing resultant data are necessary in order to fully interpret results and obtain a broad view of the trends between DNA variation and phenotypes, as well as provide information on specific SNP and phenotype relationships.
The Synthesis-View software tool was designed to visually synthesize the results of the aforementioned types of studies. Presented herein are multiple examples of the ways Synthesis-View can be used to report results from association studies of DNA variation and phenotypes, including the visual integration of p-values or other metrics of significance, allele frequencies, sample sizes, effect size, and direction of effect.
To truly allow a user to visually integrate multiple pieces of information typical of a genetic association study, innovative views are needed to integrate multiple pieces of information. As a result, we have created "Synthesis-View" software for the visualization of genotype-phenotype association data in multiple cohorts.
Phenome-Wide Association Studies (PheWAS) can be used to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a wide spectrum of phenotypes. This is a complementary approach to Genome Wide Association studies (GWAS) that calculate the association between hundreds of thousands of SNPs and one or a limited range of phenotypes. The extensive exploration of the association between phenotypic structure and genotypic variation through PheWAS produces a set of complex and comprehensive results. Integral to fully inspecting, analysing, and interpreting PheWAS results is visualization of the data.
We have developed the software PheWAS-View for visually integrating PheWAS results, including information about the SNPs, relevant genes, phenotypes, and the interrelationships between phenotypes, that exist in PheWAS. As a result both the fine grain detail as well as the larger trends that exist within PheWAS results can be elucidated.
PheWAS can be used to discover novel relationships between SNPs, phenotypes, and networks of interrelated phenotypes; identify pleiotropy; provide novel mechanistic insights; and foster hypothesis generation - and these results can be both explored and presented with PheWAS-View.
- Pendergrass SA, Dudek SM, Crawford DC, Ritchie MD. Visually integrating and exploring high throughput Phenome-Wide Association Study (PheWAS) results using PheWAS-View. BioData Min. 2012 Jun 8;5(1):5. doi: 10.1186/1756-0381-5-5. PubMed PMID: 22682510; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3476448.